LAWYER – Friedrich Nietzsche was a German philosopher, composer, poet and cultural critic.
He also inspires white superpowers.
"I am very interested in the development of ethno-racial politics and the appropriation of Nietzsche's," says Robert Antonio, a sociology professor at the University of Kansas.
But Antonio's latest article, After Nietzsche Charlottesville, published in Modern Perspectives on Social Theory, disputes the interpretation of such an effect. He argues that the philosopher's writings on German anti-Semitism and nationalism "not only contradict the" high-right "views but also theorize the conditions underlying demagogy."
Nietzsche (1844-1900) developed influential concepts such as ermbermensch, the doctrine of "will to power" and "eternal return." anti-religious swings) for their own ideology.
Antonio explains the extraordinary verdicts overturning the "traditional morality" centers of Nietzsche, which Antonio considers "the most absurd thing one can imagine."
And few judgments are as extraordinary as the racial profile.
“His whole idea of thinking goes very slowly. Think about things and look at it from different perspectives, ”he said.
Antonio chose the August 2017 events in Charlottesville, Virginia, including the Unite the Right rally as a jumping off point for his work. The infamous clash between racist hatreds and opponents led to the killing of the surroundings and injuring dozens more.
While Antonio had been studying the subject for years, the consequences at Charlottesville prompted his article.
“Many things were gathered there. Anti-Semitism, racism and neo-Nazism were exclusively visible. It was a big event, but probably what motivated me more than what happened there was Donald Trump's reaction and a willingness to disagree, ”he said.
His interest in Nietzsche's extremist groups has been around for decades. In 1995 he presented the Philosopher's Relations with Postmodernism at a European conference.
"I was talking about the 'new right', which was the term before the 'right-to-right,'" Antonio said. "There was a guy named Steven Achheim who wrote this book, Nietzsche's Legacy in Germany. And we were both the only ones in the conference who believed that the new law was a political threat. "
Antonio discusses the notion of "redness" in his writings. The term refers to 1999 The film "Matrica", the protagonist of which was given a version of Neo with a fused morpheus to swallow a red pill or a blue pill.
“You take the blue pill and the story ends. You wake up in your bed and believe everything you want to believe, ”Morpheus said. "You take the red pill and stay in Wonderland, and I show you how deep the rabbit hole is."
Richard Spencer, founder of AltRight.com and a key player in Charlotesville, claims he was given red tablets on Nietzsche's "Ethics of Morality."
"This metaphor turns to the right and refers to the transformation where you suddenly come to terms with reality, with the same Neo," Antonio said. "But this reality is a racial world, and you now see all the elements of liberal democracy."
While Nietzsche advocated a number of contradictory principles and theories, Antonio insisted that racism was not one of them.
“He calls himself anti-political because he thinks that nationalism absolutely destroys thinking and leads to regimentation. That's why his criticism of German nationalism, which he despised, "he calls himself Polish," is the kind that refutes thinking, "Antonio said.
"I never felt that Nietzsche would be in favor of anything else (what happened in Charlottesville). But at the time, I wanted to revisit this idea of outrage, because I could see so much in the Trump rallies. There is an emotional dimension. "Build that wall." "Lock her." "Send them home." You see, the audience is taking that process.
Now in her 48th year at KU, Antonio specializes in social theory. In his past, he has written works on Karl Marx, the Iraq war, global capitalism, reactionary tribalism, and Nietzsche's "anti-sociology".
"Nietzsche is a very personal philosopher," said the Connecticut native.
"There's a powerful feeling if you really read Nietzsche's intimacy, and he talks to you directly. And there is something that underlines the transformation. "
The professor said that this intimacy brings with it many misunderstandings, especially among right-wing hate groups.
“The most obvious is the anti-state side of Nietzsche. He is absolutely anti-state. He has this concept of sovereign identity, ”he said.
“The high right turns it into a regiment. It is the idea of a united nation uniting against the enemy. "
Best photo Alt-Right members plan to enter Emancipation Park, Nazi, Dashnak and Gadden flags "Put on Me" on August 11, 2017, in Charlottesville, Virginia. Credit: Anthony Crader via WikiCommons.
Bottom right photo: Philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. Credit: WikiCommons.
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