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Carl Marx (1818 – 1883) was German philosopher, economist, journalist and revolutionary who is one of the most influential figures in history because of the influence of his theories on further intellectual, economic and political history. His most popular works include: Communist Manifesto, One of the most influential political manuscripts in the world; and: Lesson Capital:, by: a basic theoretical text of Communist philosophy, economics and politics. Among Marx's most influential theories Theory of Historical Materialism based classic fight; and alienation theory of employees under capitalist conditions. Marx is considered the father of modern sociology and his work in economics laid the foundation for understanding work and its relation to capital. Learn about Karl Marx's contributions to economics and sociology, as well as his theories on capitalism and communism, with his 10 key achievements.

# 1 He advanced the theory of alienation against the worker under capitalism

The idea Alienation has an important role in Marx's early writings. He first expressed himself alienation theory her Economic and philosophical manuscripts of 1844that were not made public during his lifetime. In the work Marx depicts a worker under capitalism who suffers four types of alienated labor. First, from the product, which is determined by the capitalist class and over which it has no control; second, from the production processbecause he is being monitored and told what to do and his job is not voluntary, but because of a forced wage; third, by itselfbecause in the course of work he does not belong to himself but to another person, and because he cannot develop many aspects of his personality, but must work as a clogged gigantic machine; and fourth, from other employeesbecause it is targeting a "higher wage" competition against them, and because it is part of a competitive labor market instead of a collective effort for public competition. This is Marx's theory of alienation one of the most influential concepts of his early work.

Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts by Carl Marx
Karl Marx's 1990 edition of "Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts" International Publishers

# 2 He is the author of the famous Marxist theory of historical materialism

That's one of Karl Marx's most important investments Theory of Historical Materialism. It is said to be more comprehensive: Die Deutsche Ideologie (German ideology), A series of manuscripts co-authored by Marx and Friedrich Engels 1846. Marx's theory of history considers human society to be fundamentally determined at all times material conditions, or: the relationships that humans have with one another to produce and reproduce the means of human existence. Marx identified six consecutive rounds The development of these material conditions in Western Europe. primitive communism; slave society; feudalism; capitalism; socialism; and: Communism. He thoroughly analyzed capitalism as it was the stage in which he lived and predicted it would be so. eventually replaced by socialism, then communism. Marx's theory of history is centered on the idea that forms of society rise and fall, as later, and then impede the development of man's productive power.

German Marxism by Karl Marx
Cover Prometheus Book Collection of 1998 by Karl Marx's "German Ideology"

# 3 The concept of his classic struggle was extremely influential

Instead of understanding society based on consensus, Karl Marx created a model of social systems conflict. Class struggle is the tension that exists in society because of the socio-economic interests and desires of people of different classes.. Marx believed that the class struggle was over a key role in the history of class hierarchical systems such as capitalism. He recognized capitalist society as containing two main social groupsthat: Workforce (proletariat or workers)who make a living by selling their labor power and have little choice but to work for capitalists; and Capital (bourgeoisie or capitalists)those who receive their income from that country from a wealth-generating workforce, they correspond to surplus-value. The earnings of the capitalists are as follows depending on the operation of the employees. It is a class struggle Marx's theory is important for history and had a huge impact on the study of sociology and human culture.

Six stages of Marx's theory of class struggle history
Six stages of Marx's theory of class struggle history

# 4 Carl Mark is a co-author of the Communist Manifesto

In 1846 Karl Marx and his close friend Friedrich Engels In Brussels he established a small political circle known as: The relevant Communist Committee. The: League of Justices was a socialist group founded by German immigrants in 1836 in Paris June 1847League of Justices unites with relevant Communist Committee to establish international political party Communist League, which: It remained in existence until 1852. Marx and Engels co-wrote Manifesto of the Communist League, which was first published 2148, 1848 The: Communist Manifesto is divided into a preface and four sections. The preface urges the Communists to publicly state their views and goals. the first section contains the materialistic idea of ​​Marx's history; the second section expresses the common interest of the working class in defending the party's will; the third section distinguishes communism from other socialist doctrines common to that period; and the last section discusses the communist position on the struggle of different countries in different countries in the middle of the 19th century.

Statue of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in Berlin
Statue of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in Berlin, Germany

The Communist Manifesto No. 5 is one of the most influential political manuscripts ever

The Communist Manifesto had an effect that was limited to Germany The European revolutions of 1848. Forty years since 1870-1910sbecause of the rise of the Social Democratic parties, Hundreds of manifesto publications in thirty languages ​​have been published all over Europe and around the world. The main area of ​​its influence was the "Central Europe Area", from Russia east to France to the west. Following the success The Russian Revolution, by: The first socialist state in the world was created with openly Marxist borders and it happened It required the political class to know the Communist manifesto. The text has influenced the world and entered political science curricula in many universities. Even after the collapse of the Soviet Union in the 1990s, the manifesto remains widely read and many see it as a a valuable insight into the society we live in today as well as he an explanation of today's recurring wars and recurring economic crisis. The Communist Manifesto is regarded as: One of the most influential political manuscripts in the world.

# 6 He wrote the lesson of Capital Capital

Das Kapital (Capital: A Critique of Political Economy) This is Karl Marx's three-volume work. The: first: the volume has been published In 1867; And what? Second (1885) and: Third (1895) published after his death by the efforts of his colleague Friedrich Engels. The main idea of ​​the job is to: the driving force of capitalism is in the exploitation of laborto whom? unpaid work is the ultimate source of surplus value. According to Marx, that was the case not population pressure which drives employee salaries subsistence level (minimum subsistence level) but rather: a large army of unemployed, which is in the interest of the capitalists and increases with the accumulation of capital. According to Lesson Capital, it is the capitalist system is doomed to collapse as: "The capitalist class becomes useless for ruling because it is powerless to secure the existence of its slave in its slavery." It is then replaced by the system where The working class inherits economic and political power. It's Das Kapital a basic theoretical text of Communist philosophy, economics and politics; and: one of the most influential works in history.

Lesson The first editions of the three volumes of Capital
Lesson Capital First Editions: Volume I (1867), Volume II (1885) and Volume III (1894)

# 7 He was a leading member of the First International Organization

In 1864, the: International Workers Association (IWA) was founded in London. Also known as First international, IWA had a significant impact as a A unifying workforce in Europe Late 19th century; and its peak has been reported about 8 million members. Marx is IWA Principal Member: and: compiled the basic documents of the organization. IWA played its part when the citizens of Paris rebelled against and against their government spent the city from: May 18, 1871 to May 28, 1871. During this time the city was ruled by a radical socialist and revolutionary government known as the Paris Commune. The Commune was eventually suppressed by the French army. In response to this bloody pressure, Marx wrote one of his most famous pamphlets: Civil war in France. In 1872 the IWA began to decay and divide into two. the socialist wing was ruled by Karl Marx and the anarchist faction Mikhail Bakuni.

The First International Founding Congress
Illustrated by the International Founding Congress, September 28, 1864

# 8 His work in economics has served as a basis for understanding the workforce and its relation to capital

Karl Marx made some important contributions to the field of economics. Marx says economic science it cannot exist from sociology, history, etc.; and there are not eternal economic laws How do they? change in production mode. Thus, for purely material reduction of economic problems, he was considered a mystic. and its economic analysis is characterized by a sense of historical relativity. Among his famous theories Labor Value Theory (LTV) which claims that: The economic value of a product or service is determined by the total amount of labor socially needed to produce it. It is well known that political economics based on Karl Marx's writings Marxian economics. Its a few concepts, as related accumulation of capital and business cycle, are is used in capitalist systems. Karl Marx's work in economics influenced further economic thought and: laid the foundation for much of the current perception of work and its relation to capital.

Carl Marx
Carl Marx

# 9 Karl Marx is the founder of modern sociology

Statue of Karl Marx in Moscow
Karl Marx Memorial Complex in Moscow, Russia

Social Studies is a major academic subject to which: society and the relationships between individuals in society. Major social sciences include economics, political science, demography and sociology. Sociology is a systematic study society and human social actions. Together with Ilemile Durkheim: and: Max Webber:, Is considered Karl Marx one of the three main architects of modern social science. He is also regarded as such Founder of modern sociology. Unlike previous philosophers, Marx suggested theories that could often be tested in a scientific way. The basic concepts of Marxist sociology include: historical materialism, modes of production and the relation between capital and labor. It is primarily concerned, though not limited to the way in which economics defines social roles and expectations. The idea of ​​Marx metabolism ropethat happens because of it the tendencies of the ecological crisis under capitalizationm, is considered a precursor of modern environmental sociology.

# 10 He was one of the most influential figures in history

It was Carl Marx One of the most influential figures of the 19th century. His work influenced further intellectual, economic and political history. In the twentieth century, revolutions were called in dozens of countries Marxist:Most, especially the Russian Revolution, which led to the establishment of the first socialist state in the world Soviet Union. World's leading leaders, including: Vladimir Lenin, Mao Sedong and: Fidel Castro quoted Marx as an influence. However, Marx's original ideas have often changed, and many movements have not been faithful to his works. Carl Markle also provided Revolutionary Criticism of 19th Century Capitalism and many believe it his theories on capitalist relations between capitalist employers and their workers continue to this day. Karl Marx still considered controversial, though he remains controversial one of the greatest thinkers in history.

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