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E:n: In 1843 Bruno Bauer, who had just lost his teaching at the University of Bonn because of his anti-Islamic diatribes, published two books: Jewish Question: then The capacity for freedom for Jews and Christians today. He questions German Jews' ambitions to claim their political liberation.

At that time, Germany was a group of sovereign states, different in their legislation, and the Jews had no civil rights throughout its territory. These rights would only be granted to them in 1871 by Bismarck's recognition of German unity, and revolutionary France gave them over a quarter of a century ago.

What is Bauer's attitude toward the seclusion that his Jewish compatriots are still subjected to? ? Protestant and atheistic, even anti-clerical Protestant religion, he seeks to show that members of Jewish communities, given their religious rules, have obstacles to integrate into modern states. And especially those where Christianity, this enemy of Judaism, has promoted official religion. The only way to get out of it « the prohibitions of religion "

Against Bauer's assertion, a Jewish intellectual was at once polarized by Gabriel Reisser, Samuel Hirsch, and Gustav Phillipson. For his part, 25-year-old Carl Marx, who recently offered a doctorate in philosophy, decided to intervene. He wrote an article published in February 1844 in the only issue of a journal he had just helped find in Paris, Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher. His title ? « On the Jewish question "- and no" The Jewish question As we are used to showing it in France.

Marx knew Bauer very well, for although he was nine years older than himself, he, like him, belonged to Hegel's critics, the young Hegelians. In 1841, both wrote in collaboration, relying on Hegel and opposing the restoration of his health in Prussia with a thoughtful, anonymous manifesto in favor of atheism. Marx did not hesitate to publicly defend Bauer as a teacher in his attacks. If he breaks that alliance, it is because he considers it necessary to remove theories that he does not share.

Interesting booklet (1:)Jacques Aron examines the view that Marx develops. The latter, in contrast to Bauer, argues in principle that the Jews are capable of being liberated without them « completely and clearly separate from Judaism " He believes, however, that they must also realize that securing civil rights will be the last resort if they do not fight for a society that refuses to establish state religion by guaranteeing religious freedom as an indescribable right of a citizen.

For Bauer's second book, Marx continues to reflect on the nature of the release that he thinks should be achieved. The release of the Jews, he explains, cannot be reduced, as Bauer suggests, " philosophical-theological act "Which, according to him, are the conditions « everyday Jew « ? Not his religion, but the practices of life that have been imposed upon him historically by state powers. The latter locked him « traffic « And what? « money « creating a social cartoon » Judaism "Given the place he was arbitrarily given in bourgeois society, the Jew no longer has « Judaism « of this company: caricature Built under « an empire of private property and money " Conclusion: « The Jewish social emotion is the emotion of the Jewish community. «

From:History of anti-Semitism Leo Polyakov, 1951, marx: Jean Ellenstein, 1981, And Geography of Hope In Pierre Birnbaum, in 2004, these reflections led to the author capital has been assigned as: « anti-Semitic " This grandson of Rabbi, the son of a Protestant denomination and himself a Protestant father by his baptism in 1824, was confused. « self hatred " Robert Misrahi, in a: Marx and the Jewish Question: In 1972, he was accused of writing « One of the most anti-Semitic works of the 19th century « where would it even start, he suggested, a « call for genocide « (2:),

Ud descending and in a brilliant way, Jacques Aron comes to light on the errors of perspective and judgment, the anachronisms, and the wrong interpretations that command Misrahi's comment. He says that for young Marx, prehistoric anti-Semitism is a distraction. Should this fabrication be accepted as a universally accepted idea? ? Historian Robert Mandrou (3:) In 1968 it was already mentioned that Marx's texts against Bauer were often cited as dishonesty. « by the slaughterers of Marxism who pity the anti-Jewish Jew « worth reading « with attention and probability "

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